The History of Great Britain

1, The early history
the first people to inhabit the British Isles were settlers from Europe
they arrived between 3,500 and 3,000 B.C and introduced farming, potery and stone tools
they lived in the south of England
Stonehenge was built by these early inhabitants

2, Stonehenge
the largest prehistoric monument, a huge circle of standing stones on Salisbury Plain
visitors from all over the world come here and wonder at how these huge stones were transported and erected over 3000 years ago

3, Celtic tribes
they appeared on the island in 750 B.C.
they were divided into tribes, one of them was called Britons and the whole island was named Britannia

4, Roman tribes
the first roman invasion was led by Julius Caesar in 55 B.C., but Britain wasn´t conquered
later was conquered under Emperor Claudius n 43 A.D.
he pushed (vytlačit) a lot of Celts who lived there to the north and west, Celts didn´t like it and that´s why attacked the Romans many times
Roman Emperor Hadrian wanted to stop them built a long wall to defend (chránit) the border between England and Scotland
Roman occupation of Britain lasted nearly 400 years, it´s effects were few, the people didn´t adopt Latin language

5, Theree Germanic tribes
in the middle of 5th century the Angles, Saxons and Jutes came from Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands
they conquered the Celts and drove them into what is now Wales and Scotland

6, Christianity
in 597 St. Augustin landed in Kent and brought Christianity to England
he became the first Archbishop of Canterbury

7, Alfred the Great
he was the best-known among the Saxon kings, was very intelligent and well educated and translated books from Latin into Old English

8, Battle of Hastings (1066)
this battle change the future of England, when William Duke of Normandy and his soldiers sailed from France across English Channel to England
they defeated the Saxon King Harold, who was killed
he  became King of England = William the Conqueror (dobyvatel)

9, Thomas Becket
he became archbishop of Canterbury and refused (odmítl) to submit (podrobit) to Henry
it was struggle for power between King  Church
he was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral

10, The Great Charter of Liberties
it wrote King John (John Lackland) in 1215
this Charter limited the absolute power of the king in favour (ve prospěch) of the barons
later it garanted personal and political freedom of every Englishman

11, The Hundred Year´s War 1337-1453
it was war with France, Edward III wanted to be the King of France but the French King wouldn´t agree to this and so began the war
the war ended in England´s defeat

12, The War of Roses 1455-1485
a dynastic struggle for the possession of the Crown between the House of York and the House of Lancaster, whose emblems were a white and red rose
two powerful branches of the Royal Family for 30 years carried on civil war in order to secure the throne for themselves
peace was made when Henry VII of Lancaster married Elizabeth of York

13, The Tudor Period 1485-1603
it was a turning (obrat) point in English history
one of the best remembered kings are Henry VIII and his daughter Elizabeth I
England was in the middle Ages (středověk) a small unimportant country but in Tudor period it became one of the leading (řídící) wordl powers
there were several factors that contributed (přispěly) to the rise of England as a world power in the 16th century
a) the great geographical discoveries /America, India/
b)trading expeditions were encouraged by Elizabeth I
c) they were often combined with piracy, two well-known pirates = Sir Walter Raleigh (he founded the first english colony in North America and called it Virginia in honour of the Queen) and Sir Francis Drake
something about Henry VIII: he had 6 wives, he became the Head of the English Church instead of Pope, names of his wives (the first Catherine Aragon, Anne Boleyn-was executed, Jane Saymoor, Anne from Cleves, Catherine Howard-executed too, Catherine Parr)
Anne Boleyn´s daughter, Elizabeth became an outstanding (vynikající) Queen of England, she ruled not by force, but by female diplomacy, many european kings longed to control England but she remained unmarried, she kept them hoping and so managed to keep peace with their countries, she was called “Virgin Queen”
the Elizabethan age produced the world´s greatest paywright William Shakespeare

14, The Civil War 1640-1649
this century can be characterised as a period of conflict between the King (Royalists) and Parliament (Parliamentarians)
the country was divided between the supporters of Charles I,who wanted to rule absolutely, and the supporters of Parliament,who wanted to limit the King´s powers
the conflict let to the civil war which resulted in the abolition of the monarchy and in Cromwell´s military rule (military dictatorship)
England was declared a republic under the name of The Commonwealth with Oliver Cromwell at its head-his official title was Lord Protector
this period ended in the Glorious Revolution which marked the end of the English bourgeoise revolution

15, Industrial Revolution 1760-1850
in this period Britain became the first industrial power in the world “the workshop the world”
struggles between France and Britain for world domination started in Napoleonic Wars

16, The Victorian Era 1837-1901
is called after Queen Victoria, Britain became the strongest power in the world
she was just eighteen when she came to the throne, she was good queen and ruled over 60 years – it was for Britain a time of long peace
Britain became the greatest: industrial power, financial and commercial power, sea  power, colonial power
Victoria was the first monarch to live in Buckingham Palace

17, Between the two wars
Britain still remained the greatest sea power and colonial power but it lost its position as the greatest financial power

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