The Picture of Dorian Gray

author: Oscar Wilde


Basil Hallward – painter, he painted picture of Dorian Gray, he loves him
lord Henry Wotton – nobleman, friend of Basil, then of Dorian too, he influenced Dorian, he has „interesting“ philosophical ideas                                                                   
Sibyla Vane – poor , young and beautiful actrees, girl-friend of Dorian Gray, he wanted to marry her, he left her, she committed suicide
James Vane – Sibyla’s brother, who is to become a sailor and sail for Australia, he promised, that he kill Dorian, when he hurt Sibyla.
Alan Cambell – chemist, hepled Dorian with dead body, they are ex-friends, he committed suicide
Dorian Gray – at the beginning he was incorrupt, lovely and naive and then he changed…


Basill Hallward is painting Dorian Gray and see how perfect, handsome and young is Dorian. His friend – lord Henry Wotton – wants to meet this „perfekt“ boy. While Basil was painting Dorian, lord Henry was talking about youth. Basil finished his work and Dorian looked at his portrait and told: „I want to be forever young and picture will grow old.“ After time Dorian forgot what he told. He took the picture at home.
He fell in love with Sibyla Vane and they betrothed. She is very good actrees, she calls Dorian: Prince Charming. Dorian took his friends (Basil and lord Henry) to performance of Sibyla, she was horrible and Dorian was disappointed. He told her: „I loved you because you was good actrees.“ and he left her. Next morning he understood that he was bad and he loves her. But lord Henry came and told him that Sibyla is dead. She committed suicide.
Dorian (vyčítat si to) but lord Henry calmed down him. Dorian looked the picture and saw: Dorian in the picture had cruel smile. After that he hasn’t qualms and the picture changed like his soul. He remembered his wish. Now the picture is mirror of his soul. Dorian started to change and the picture too…, but Dorian has the same and young look and Dorian in the picture starts to be cruel, ugly and old.
Basil came to Dorian and told him that he will go to Paris for 6 months and people of London say horrible things about him. And every gentleman must have good reputation. When Basil started to talk about soul, Dorian started to be nervous. He took Basil to unused room, where is the picture. When Basil saw it, he horrified: „You must be worse than people are saying about you!“ Dorian started to hate him and he killed him.
He summoned (called) Alan Cambell, Dorian chantaged him and compeled to (donutil k) help with dead body. (Dorian in the portrait has blood on right hand.)
One day when Dorian was out, he met Sibyl’s brother, he wanted to kill Dorian, but he got heed to Dorian should have 38 years and thid boy is very young. He let him, but he was after Dorian.
Lord Henry told him that the police can’t to find Basil and Alan Cambell committed suicide. And when Sibyl’s brother shooted dead, Dorian composed.
He wanted to be better and he believed it. He wanted to see picture – better picture. But the picture is worse than before… He doesn’t understand it. He started to be furious. He stabs the picture.
On the floor, servants found the ugly, old man with a knife in his heart, and the portrait of Dorian, as handsome as he was eighteen years ago. It is only through his rings that the corpse can be identified.

my opinion:
I like this book because I never read something like this and I love magics. I read Lord of rings and Harry Potter
Though I’ve knowed the end of story it was very interesting for me. I read it in one breath…
I thing that everybody should have picture like this and every day they can see how people are or aren’t good. But Dorian don’t belive to picture and it was mistake.

Human Body

1) The human body
•    skeleton = kostra consisting of about 206 bones
-    bones connected by joints = klouby
-    backbone (33 – 34 vertebrae)
-    brainpan = lebka, chest = hrudní koš
-    upper limbs = horní končetiny: arm: shoulder, upper arm, elbow = loket, forearm = předloktí, wrist = zápěstí, hand with fingers
-    fingers: thumb, forefinger, middle-finger, ring-finger, little-finger
-    lower limbs = spodní končetiny: leg: thigh = stehno, knee, calf = lýtko, ankle = kotník, foot with toes
•    muscles – 640 muscles in body
•    skin covers bones, muscles and organs
•    the head
-    brain is in brainpan – centre of thinking
-    forehead = čelo, cheeks = tváře
-    eyes: organs of sight: can be dark, brown, blue, green; people can need spectacles for near (or distant) vision or to be blind
-    nose: organ of smell: for (nasal) breathing = nosní dých.
-    ears: organs of hearing; people can be deaf = hluchý
-    mouth: tongue – organ of taste and talking, in are 32 teeth (children – deciduous = opadávající teeth), is cover by lips for drinking, suck, talk and smile too (you need 36 muscles for one smile)
-    hair: cover of the scalp: can be dark, black, brown, blonde, white in old age; skinhead
-    chin = brada: men: beard, moustache

•    the trunk = trup
-    inside are organs:
-    lungs = plíce: changing oxygen to carbon dioxide
-    heart: pumps fresh blood into the body
-    liver = játra: cleans blood
-    kidneys = ledviny: removes waste liquids = znečištěnou kapalinu from blood
-    stomach: processing of food
2) Diseases
•    typical in history:
-    plague = mor: symptoms: fever = horečka, shakes, sore joints = bolesní kloubů, bumps = boule like egg, treatment = léčba: in history: alcohol, today: vaccine
•    typical child diseases:
-    pox = neštovice: symptoms: fever, rash = vyrážka, treatment: liquid powder and tablets
•    general diseases
-    flu = chřipka: symptoms: fever, cold, cough = kašel, treatment: gargle = kloktadlo, drops and tablets
-    tonsillitis = angina: symptoms: sore throat = bolení v krku, treatment: gargle and tablets
-    cold (very typical): treatment: drops
•    untypical diseases
-    sunstroke = úpal: symptoms: fever, vomit = zvracení, treatment: tablets and sleeping
-    pneumonia  = zápal plic: symptoms: sore throat = bolení v krku, treatment: gargle and tablets
•    fatal diseases
-    cancer = rakovina: symptoms: bumps, treatment: operation or chemotherapy
-    heart stroke = infarct: symptoms: sore in left arm, in heart, bad breathing, treatment: operation
3) Treatment
-    drinking hot tea
-    eating lots of fruit with vitamin C
-    sleeping, relaxing
-    tablets, drops
-    in fatal diseases: go to the doctor
4) Accident
•    if somebody:
-    break an arm or leg: go to the hospital or doctor with him, go for an X-ray = rentgen, he gets the bones in plaster
-    has injured head: try to don’t move with him, call the doctor
-    bleed: try to stop it too, bind it the closest to the = nejblíže k heart
•    if you
-    break an arm or leg: call help, go to the hospital or doctor with him, go for an X-ray = rentgen, he gets the bones in plaster
-    has injured head: call help, do nothing alone, you must go to doctor, maybe you will have comatose
-    bleed: try to stop it too, bind it the closest to the = nejblíže k heart, don’t strain a lot of, go very quickly to doctor

Ernest Miller Hemingway

Edgar Allan Poe
•    he was born in 1809, poem-writer, story-teller, critic
•    he lost both of parents and his childhood wasn’t nice
•    he tried to committed suicide
•    master of horror in literature and he was first who used detective in literature
The Raven and Other Poems – never more
The Murders In The Rue Morgue

Mark Twain
•    he was born in 1835, story-writer
•    MT is only nick – it means depth water on Mississippi
•    he lost father and his brother bought printing-works
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

John Steinbeck
•    he was born in 1902, story-writer
•    he studied university (biology, English literature)
•    in 1962 he hot a Nobel price
The Grapes of Wrath
Of Mice and Men

Ernest Miller Hemingway
•    he was born 21st July in 1899, in Illinois
•    his father is doctor and he had 6 brothers and sisters
•    American novel-writer, story-teller, journalist
•    main representatives of Lost generation
-    Lost generation – group of American authors in 20th century, they tried what is it war and they ceased (= přestat) believe in American dream, typical is regret and scepticism (= zklamání a skepse)
•    he left home and became journalist after his school living exam and in 1918 he left to Italian, because of go to war like volunteer of Red cross, he was wounded (= raněn) – first wounded American – famous
•    after war he backed to the USA, he got married in 1920 (wife Halley), he had son
•    like foreign journalist he went with family to Paris where he met Gertrude Stain
-    she said: “My country is America, my home is Paris.” and she taught: “America is new world and Europe is old world, if you want be good writer you must know old world and how the people in old world wrote.”
-    Lost generation sucked from (= čerpat z) Shakespeare
•    he got married second wife in 1927 (wife Pauline), he had 2 sons again
•    he became writer, after that he travelled to Africa and to Spain
•    during the 2nd world war he lived in Cuba with his third wife (Marta) and in 1944 he was in London like journalist, where he met his forth wife (Mary)
•    after that he backed to USA
•    in 1953 he got Pulitzer price
•    in 1954 he got Nobel price for literature, for The Old man and the sea
•    at the end of life, he had psychic depression and in 1961 he committed suicide
•    representation of psychic of person, method glacier – 1/8 (one eighth) is above water level, it is mean 1/8 of psychic of person we can see and know but the other is under his water level
•    he wrote about men, who had dangerous life (fisherman, soldiers)
•    it is celebration of their courage
•    subject: his writing is inspired of personal experience, war
•    The Old man and the sea
•    For Whom the Bell Tolls
•    A Farewell to Arms
Hlavním hrdinou této knihy je stařičký Santiago. Byl to vynikající rybář. V poslední době ho však opouštějí nejen síly, ale i štěstí. Už osmdesát dní neulovil žádnou větší rybu. Taky proto ho musel na příkaz rodičů opustit jeho mladý pomocník a přítel. Ten s ním nejen jezdil na ryby, ale nosil mu i jídlo a staral se o toho dobrosrdečného vyzáblého staříka, jehož ruce byly zjizvené hlubokými zářezy od toho, jak se lopotil s těžkými rybami na šňůrách. Žádná z těch jizev ale nebyla čerstvá. Všechno na něm bylo staré, až na jeho oči. Ty měly stejnou barvu jako moře a hleděly vesele a nezkroušeně. Když měl oči zavřené, byla jeho tvář jako bez života. Jednoho dne brzy zrána se stařec vypraví na břeh daleko od břehu a doufá, že konečně prolomí svou smůlu. A skutečně. Na udici mu zabere kousek, který sice nevidí, ale tuší, že půjde o jeho největší úlovek. Ryba ho však překvapí a táhne ho i s loďkou na širé moře. Santiago je po několika hodinách velice vyčerpán, ruce má rozedřené, hrdlo vyschlé. Ryba má ale výdrž a vytrvale pluje dál. Mezitím se zešeří a přichází večer. Loďka stále šplouchá černou vodou. Santiago probdí velice nezvyklou a fyzicky náročnou noc. Ryba se ale ani ráno nevzdá. Starci pomalu docházejí síly a chvilkami nemá daleko k mdlobám, přesto se mu nakonec podaří rybu, po dlouhém a namáhavém boji, hlavně díky svým dlouholetým zkušenostem a vytrvalosti zabít. Je mu jí velice líto, protože byla mimořádně klidná, sebevědomá a nebojácná a on ji za to obdivoval. Přiváže ji k loďce a vydává se k domovu. Po cestě mu ji však přes všecko jeho úsilí sežerou žraloci. Stařec nadobro vyčerpán se tedy vátí do své prosté chatrče z bambusu a usne. Ránu u moře postává skupinka lidí a nevěřícně a obdivně hledí na obrovitou kostru, přivázanou ke starcově loďce.Stařec a moře je symbolická novela. Zachycuje hluboce lidský příběh prostého starce, který vedl statečný ač beznadějný boj s mořem a žraloky o svůj úlovek a stala se obrazem nikdy nekončícího zápasu člověka s přírodou. Jejím smyslem je poukázat na obrovskou lidskou statečnost nezdolnou duševní sílu. Novela, která je zároveň autorovým životním krédem, plným právem přispěla k k tomu, že se Ernest Hemingway stal největší postavou americké literatury první poloviny 20. století. Knihy je napsána pro Hemingwaye charakteristickým novátorským stylem, který se vyznačuje hlavně skrytou dramatičností zdánlivě střízlivých popisů a strohostí výpovědí. Jeho hrdinové prokazují mimořádně lidské kvality. Je napsána poutavým úsporným stylem, který doprovází určitá dynamika. Autor použil chronologický kompoziční postup. Ze stylistických postupů je ve velké míře zastoupen hlavně úvahový a popisný. Jazyk je spisovný, objevuje se zde spousta cizích slov – převážně z rybářského prostředí.


•    I live in flat with my mother, step father and brother.
•    our block of flat is small, it has only 4 floors
•    our surrounding is wonderful, we live in calm part of our town, my basic school was 200m of my home
•    our flat is modern, very nice and my mother is expert by decoration of our flat, I like my home very much
­    in our flat, there is hall, it made from wood and the wood smells very nice, when you open a door
­    on the left side, there are bathroom and toilet together, there are tiles on the floor and on the wall too, we haven’t a bathtub, we have only shower bath
bathroom is in green colour, because of tiles and mother’s decoration and shower bath, washbasin (= pračka) sideboards and toilet are white
­    when you leave our hall, you are in dining room, which is joined with living room and kitchen
­    joined it is mean we haven’t a door or wall there, but in reality it is separated by colour or using
­    dinig room is decorade by wood on the wall and all things are make from wood there, there is a table with 4 chairs, comode and big open sideboard
­    living room is make from wood too, but it has black colour, there is a unit furniture, TV set (it mean TV, video, DVD recorder and so one), there is a glass coffe table (it is smoked glass - dark) and a three-piece suite in green colour with black narrow strips kitchen is in white colour, it is a little bit impractical, there is fridge, washer (= myška), cooker, electric oven and there is a sink unit, which is light brown colour bedroom of my parents, it is smaller room in our flar, there is TV set, bed and shelves the last is bedroom of me and my brother, it is very large room, there are 4 tall wardrobes and 2 of them are 2 big mirrors, there are 3 tables: the table, where is computer, my brother’s table and my, where is a lot of papers to school, books, which I am reading, calendar with dogs, photos of my family, me and Ondra, jewel box (=šperkovnice) and box for pencils, crayon and felt tips (= fixy) and I have blue revolving chair, above table of my brother is TV set and we sleep on bunk bed, there is waste-paper basket,
•    I like my home and I would like to change only one thing: I have never had my own room. I would like to have room only for me (posters of stars, my own computer, own bed) and I can go to sleep when I want and listen music when I want and so on
•    my favourite: bedroom of me and my brother – learn here, read, prepare to school, dance, listen a music, watch TV, eat here
•    paremts: my mum is from town (Kopřivnice) and my father from villige (Ženklava), they lived together in Kopřivnice, but my parents are divorced now
­    I live with my mum in Kopřivnice
­    my father has family (wife and children) in Bartošovice, they live in detached house with garden and swiming pool, now I seldom visit him, I stopped to visit him when I was 10
­    his house is very nice and large, there are 2 floors, in 1st floor is kitchen and dining room and in 2nd floor is bedroom of my brother and stepbrothers and bedroom of my father and my stepmother and large living room
­    I don’t like my bed there, the roof under my bed is skewed (= strop je zkosený) and I hurt every morning
•    I never want to live with my parents in one house when I will be married, parents want to safe and help their children all life – me and my future husband will have a problem – we will solve this problem, but parents will want to help and you can say to neighbour: “Don’t discard me, please” (= nestarej se o mě, prosím)
•    all my neighbours in our block of flat is pensioners
­    all the time at home, scullionly swear (= sprostě nadávají) at politicians and goverment, smoke a lot of, gossip about everything (= drbou o) and they want, you must be calm at 8 pm
­    on the other side – our house is clean, garden in front of our block if flat is wonderfull, care about side-walk (= chodník), bushes, grass and when snow, our stairs and side-walk is buldoze at 7 am
•    I would like to live in this country, my aunt (sister of my father) live in Switzerland 10 years, she is happy but my grandparents are very sad, they can’t to see their grandchildren (Joel and Cyril – speak Germany, understand Germany and Czech)
•    I would like to live in village but now I live in town
­    town:
advantage – buses goes often, a lot of shops, people don’t know you
disadvantage – smog, a lot of cars, buses, dangerous
­    village
advantage – nature, good relations, calm, you can sunbathe on garden (naked too)
disadvantage – gossips, one shop for all village, everywhere must go by car or bus

•    I would like to live in house in Ženklava, it is detached house, there are 8 rooms and 2 floors:
­    in 1st floor:
­    hall where are a lot of flowers, table and chairs make from wood, on table is telephone (horrible – sit and talk and talk), there is tiled floor (bacause of grandfather)
­    room for guests there is parguet floor and a unit furniture, TV set, a folding three-piece suite and table, there are a lot of flowers too (my grandparents – large garden, love flowers, my grandgrandfather was gardener)
­    furnace room there is gas furnace (= plynový kotel) and spiders (I hate this place)
­    stairs without banister
­    in 2nd floor:
­    bathroom – white color, there are bathtub, washbasin, toilet, sideboards, on the floor and wall are tiles
­    living room – computer, a three-piece suite in black colour, a coffe table, TV set, I love glass wall poster where are photos of me, my brothers, stepbrother and my cousins, in time when we were babies until todays
­dining room and kitchen are together, there is fridge, electric oven and cooker and grandmother said: “I am washer.”, table and chairs of course bedroom for my grandparents, there are bed, a bedside tables: grandmother – books by Roberts and Sandra Brown (about love) and grandfather – books and magazines about garden, science and history
­    there is large balcony, where we have a breakfast and lunch in summer and in night you can watch stars on sky attic there is everything, grandparents dry a flower for tea and clothes there, there are spider too, I hate it too around of house is garden, large garden, there are trees: fruit, decorative and lime tree (=lípa) 300 year-old – we can’t to cut it, I want a swiming pool there – grandfather wants small lake with fishes and ducks on garden is a garage, where is car, lawn mower, bikes and utility room for my grandfather, under garage is cellar, there is apples, potatoes, wine and spiders too
•    I would like to live here, it is very modern house, I would like to change only, room for guests and make bedroom for children:
­    large room, when children will be small they will be together in this room, carpet will be blue with cars (boys) or barbies (girls) and on wall will be paint small mole (= malý krtek – krteček) with mouse in grass, there will be a lot of toys, bunk bed and a wall unit from wood, the room will be shiny and light
­    when they will be older (about 12) we will build a wall in the midle of the room and both of them will have own room, there will be table, chair, computer, bed and everything what they need
•    problem homelles:
­    people, who lost work or family or house because of fire and so one
­    sometime they try have a work, find a flat
­    sometime they are only drinkers and they don’t want to work and have a home
•    today is very modern to have a detached house or a week, when you live in big city
­    it is better economic situation and people build new houses, behind my block of flat are a lot of new houses (wonderfull but sometime horrible colour)
­    in England is typicipal to live in detached house, is expensive to buy a house, but it is cheaper to live in detached house than live in flat all life
­    in London: house boat (people live on boat on Temže)

­    in the USA, there are places where is savanna and desert where people live alone and places where is big cities and where live a lot of people
people in America live in 2 extremes:
­    in large detached house with garden on wonderful street in the suburb (= na předměstí) – everybody know everybody
­    in big block of flats or skyscrapers in city


Australia ist the biggest island in the world. It’s only a little smaller than the USA and it is bigger then Western Europe. The centre of the country is very flat and dry. There are great deserts, great salt lakes and interesting plants and animals. There are strange rokcs which stand up out of the flat desert floor. The most famous of these, Ayers Rock, is the largest piece of stone in the world. It is 335 meters high and can you see it from many kilometres away. A long line of mountains runs from the nort to the south of the east coast. It’s called the Great Diving Range, because it divides the green, wet coast of eastern Australia from the hot, dry lands in the centre. Famous „Indian Pacific“ crosses the Nullarbor Plain, it runs along the longest straight railyway line in the world. The journey from coast to coast takes 65 hours.
   Most of Australians (85 per cent) live in the cities of the east coast. There are only 16 million people in Australia. There are 6 different states in Australia : Western Australia , Queensland , New South Wales , Victoria , Tasmania and South Australia.    There are also 2 territories : Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory with Canberra, the national’s capital; city, in it. Each Australian state has its own government, and its own capital city. The state capitals are PERTH , BRISBANE , SYDNEY , MELBOURNE , HOBART and ADELAINE .
Government consist of two „houses“ of parliament, the Upper House(60 members) and the Lower House (127 members). Above the parliament is the Cabinet and the Prime Minister. The head of state is the Governor General.
   Australia has 3 different climates. North of the Tropic of Capricorn, the weather is tropical – hot and wet. In the centre, the climate is very dry and the land is mainly desert. In the south, it is pleasant with cool winters and warm summer.
   Australia is sometimes called „ the lucky country“ . One reason is the wonderful riches, under the earth : gold , silver , iron , coal and many precious metals .
The Bass Strait, of the coast of Victoria, has been one of the country’s biggest oil fields for many years. There are two kinds of gold  in Western Australia.  Gold  was foun in kalgoorlie in 1893 and in still exports some gold, but the new gold of Western Australia is wheat. Big farms grow million of tons of wheat every year, and wheat has become Australia’s second biggest export.
   Well-known Australia’s typical animals are kangaroos, koala bears, platypuses, crocodiles and less well-known wild animals ( e.g. black swans, lizards with big blue tongues) which are protected.
   Australia’s farmers can grow almost anything owing to different kinds of climate. They grow bananas , sugar , grapes , apples , every kind of vegetable and there are, of course great wheat fields. But the real business of Australian farmers is sheep and cattle . (18 million beef cattle and 139 million sheep)
   In 1788 the first Europeans (about 1000 people) came to Australia on small ship onto the beach at Sydney Cove. 750 of them were convicts , criminals from the prisons of Britain. The name „Australia“ comes from „australis“ , the Latin word for „ of the south“ . 90% of Australians had come from Britain or Ireland. Although Australia is a Pacific country, nearer to Asia than to Europe, Australians feel that they are Europeans. Even some people who were born in Australia call Britain „home“.  
SYDNEY(opera house) – is the most beautiful city on earth and the most modern place in Australia. It has a perfect Mediterranean climate, fresh sea air and exciting people from all over the world. Sydney is Australia’s oldest city. Captain James Cook stopped near here at Botany Bay in 1770. In only 200 years the city grew from nothing into a home for 3,5 million people. Some people call the city
„the Paris of the Pacific“.
MELBOURNE – has beautiful parks and gardens amd some fine old buildings, but it is perhaps a little old-fashioned.
Some famous Australian faces are : Paul Hogan (an actor), Joan Sutherland and Nellie Melba ( opera singers), Pat Cash (tennis player), Patrick White , Germanie Greer , Thomas Keneally , Judith Wright (all writers).
Australians were the first nation to bring in the eight hour working day. The like to have plenty of time – time to swim, time to picnic in the bush, time to sit on the beach, time to gambke, time to do nothing. Sport is one of the things, that is really important to many Australian men. In fact, it has a very high nuámber of world champions in all kinds of sports.  Football , cricket , surfing  are the best famous sports in Australia. There is not really a special Australian way of eating in Australia. One of special Australia’s food is VEGEMITE (salty black stuff with a strong taste, eating on their bread) or a PEACH MELBE (delicious pudding made with peaches, cream, cake and nuts).  Beer is the most popular drink. After the Germans and the Czechs, Australians are the biggest beer drinkers in the world.
   Australians speak English, but don’t be surprised if you can’t understand everything they say. A lot of words are made by shortening English words, There are special wods for farming and the countryside ( Oz – Australia , ta – thank you , bowzer – very good , Pom – an English person , Seppo – an American)
   When the white people first came to Australia, about 300 000 Australian ABORIGINALS were living there, in about 600 different groups of tribes.
   There are perhaps nearly 200 000 Aboriginals alive now, but life is still very sad for them.
   The Aboriginals told wonderful stories about the „ Dreamtime “ , before the world began. They told how the animals, the birds and the people were made. They understand and love their land. Some places, like Ayers Rock are very holy to them.
   But the Europeans wanted land and they pushed them out of their way.

Australia-New Zeland

Australia is located in south-east Asia. The Indian Ocean is west and south, the Pacific (Coral and Tasman Seas) is east. Nearest is Indonesia, Papua New Guinea on north, Solomons, Fiji and New Zealand are on east. Its area is 7.7 mil sq. km. Australia is an island continent. The Great Dividing Range along the Eastern coast (The Australian Alps) has the highest Australian mountain Mt. Kosciusko. Arid and hot are the north-western part of Western Australia and northern Territories and also Great Sandy and Great Victoria Deserts. The North-East has heavy rainfalls and Cape York Penninsula has jungles. Rivers (the Murray River, the Darling), Lakes (Lake Eyre, Lake Torrens and Lake Gairdner).
The Australian climate varies from warm to subtropical. The Continent is in the southern hemisphere which means that Australia has summer when we have winter and vice versa. The Animals of Australia are numerous and some of them, like the kangaroo, koala, bear, dingo, platypus, Tasmanian devil, wombat cannot be found elsewhere.
    The population of Australia is some 17 million. The density is one of the lowest in the world. People live in urban areas mainly along the south-east coast. Deserts and the tropical northern part are practically uninhabited. Inhabitants are mainly of British origin, the rest is made by other European ethnic groups and by aborigines. Australian English and aboriginal languages are spoken here.   
    Captain James Cook explored the eastern coast in 1770 when the continent was inhabited by a variety of different tribes. Within decades Britain got the entire continent which became a convict colony from 1788 till 1850s when immigration increased because gold was found here. Aborigines and part-aborigines are mostly detribalized but there are several preserves in the Northwest Territory.
    Main industries are iron, steel, textiles, electrical equipment, chemicals, car, aircraft, ship and machinery. Australia belongs to the top exporters of beef, lamb, wool, oats, hay, sugar, wine, fruit and vegetables. Natural riches contain mainly bauxite, coal, copper, iron, lead, nickel, silver, tin, uranium and zinc ores. Currency used in Australia is Australian Dollar.
    The official title is The Commonwealth of Australia and it is a British dominion. It has a democratic, federal system and the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II represented by the Governor-General. The head of government is the Prime Minister.
The Commonwealth of Australia consists of 6 states and 2 territories: New South Wales (capital Sydney), Victoria (Melbourne), Queensland (Brisbane), South Australia (Adelaide), Western Australia (Perth), Tasmania (Hobart). The capital of whole country is Canberra.
The Australian national flag consists of the British Flag symbol and a larger blue field in which 5 stars are arranged in the form of the Southern Cross constellation.

    New Zealand consists of two large islands (north and South Island) in south-west Pacific Ocean. Nearest are Australia on west, Fiji, Tonga on north. Its area is 270 tausent sq. km. Each of the two main islands is mainly hilly and mountainous. The east coast consists of fertile plains (Canterbury Plains). A volcanic plateau is in the centre of North Island.
    The population is more than 3 million people. Density is much higher than in Australia. The most of people live in urban areas. People are of European (above all British) origin, the rest are Polynesian. Officially English is spoken here but some people still speak Maori.
    The Maoris, a Polynesian group reached New Zealand before and during the 14th century. The first Europeans were Abel Tasman and James Cook. Now it is an independent member of the Commonwealth.
    Food processing, textiles, machinery and forest industry are the main industries here. Only 2 per cent of land is arable and the main crops is grain. Natural riches are: oil, gas, iron ore and coal. The main trading partners of new Zealand are the USA, Australia, Japan, Great Britain.
    NZ has a parliamentary system where the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II represented by the Governor General. The head of government is the Prime Minister. The country is divided into counties. The capital is Wellington, other big cities are Manukau, Christchurch and Auckland.
The flag consists of the British Union Jack in the left upper corner and 4 red stars in the Southern Cross constellation.


    Canada occupies the whole of the northern part of North America (except Alaska) and many islands Baffin Island, Newfoundland, Vancouver, Prince Edward Island etc.). Canada is the second largest country in the world – its area is about 10 mil. sq. km. It neighbours with the USA – with Alaska and with the continental states and the Great Lakes Area. This border is the longest undefended border in the world.
    The Great Lakes Region is the largest area of fresh water in the world. There are famous Niagara Falls between Lake Erie and Ontario. We can find also other big and beautiful lakes in Canada, e.g. Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Lake Winnipeg etc.
    Canada has large mountain areas – the Rocky Mountains, the Mackenzie Mountains and the Melville Hills. The highest mountain is Mt. Logan in the Alaska Region, the longest river is the Mackenzie, other big rivers are the Yukon, the Fraser, the Columbia and the River St. Lawrence.
    The climate varies from Arctic climate in the North to moderate climate in the east and west. The north of the country near the Arctic is a cold tundra with large and beautiful forests to the south. The central plains form the prairie.
     Canada have more than 27 mil. people. The density is one of the lowest in the world. 80 per cent Canadians live in large urban centres located within 300 km of the southern border. People are mainly of British and French origin and of continental European origin and the rest is made by Eskimos or Indians (Eskimos are sometimes called the Inuits). Two main languages in Canada are English and French.
    The original inhabitants came to Canada some 10 or 25 thousand years ago from Asia. The first Europeans here were the Vikings. During the Age of Discoveries (the 15th and 16th centuries) some navigators (e.g. Jacques Cartier) landed on the Canadian coast. Since the 16th century large territories were occupied by the French but France lost this country in wars with England and Canada became a British dominion.
    Canada has mainly coal, metal, oil and gas, machine-building and chemical industries. The main mining province is Alberta. Motorcar industry has its works in Chatham and Oshawa, ship are built on the banks of Great Lakes, in Montreal and Toronto. Hydroelectric industry is highly developed in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
    Almost half the land area of Canada is covered by forests. Only about 7 per cent of land is suitable for farming (wheat). Other important agriculture items are e.g. livestock production, oats, vegetables, fruits and leather.
    Natural resources: gold, uranium, other metal ores, oil and gas. Most people work in services, the rest work in manufacturing, agriculture, finance, fishing etc.

    It is and independent federal parliamentary system with Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state. She is represented in Canada by the governor-general. The federal parliament consisting of two houses: The House of Commons and The Senate.
    Canada is divided into 10 provinces ant 2 territories. The biggest province is Quebec (capital Quebec city). Other provinces are:
-    Newfoundland
-    Prince Edward Island
-    Nova Scotia
-    New Brunswick
-    Manitoba
-    Ontario
-    Saskatchewan
-    Alberta
-    British Columbia
    The capital of Canada is Ottawa. The biggest city is Toronto, other Montreal, Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg... Canada is the member of many international organisations such as the UN and NATO. Its flag is red and in the centre there is whit square with a red maple leaf.